Ph.D., Columbia University
- Nineteenth-century British poetry, prose, and novels
- Social and Political background
- Matthew Arnold and the Three Classes (Columbia University Press, 1964).
- Over seventy refereed articles and reviews in Victorian Studies, The Dickensian, SEL, The Arnoldian, JEGP, Dickens Studies Annual, and Victorian Institute Journal.
- Advisory board, Nineteenth-Century Prose.
- Editor, DICKENS-L, the e-group for Dickensians from 1993-present.